Technology of development and realization of the social project.
Step by step, or Technology of development and realization of the social project
Inter-regional public organization of children and youth " the New civilization ", " the Teacher's newspaper " and Inter-regional association " For civil formation(education) " have declared realization in the current educational year of the All-Russia competition of youth social projects " we Trust to Russia, we build Russia ". It is possible to get acquainted with conditions of competition in " the Teacher's newspaper "? 41, 1999.
As it was specified in the given material, we begin a series of consultations on development of youth social projects. They will help you not only to execute all requirements to competitive works, but also in the future is competent to realize planned, having brought real advantage(benefit) to local community, people which live and трудятся near to you.
First we shall designate the full list of the basic steps which it is necessary to undertake that:
а) Is qualitative to develop the social project to make his(its) organizational plan and to prepare all necessary, including resources and the staff;
б) Is successful to realize the planned plan of action, having received greatest possible for you or your command(team) result.
So, the list of the basic steps.
Stage - " Development of the social project "
Step? 1. Studying of a public opinion.
Step? 2. Definition of a social problem and its(her) description.
Step? 3. Definition of the purposes and problems(tasks) of work on the chosen social problem.
Step? 4. Studying of opportunities of youth club " New civilization ", the characteristic of a control system of the project.
Step? 5. Scheduling of work.
Step? 6. Drawing up of an operating schedule.
Step? 7. Distribution of duties inside a command(team).
Step? 8. Definition of necessary resources and sources of their reception.
Step? 9. Drawing up of the budget of the project.
Step? 10. System engineering of an estimation and the description of expected results.
Step? 11. An explanation of duties and training of members of a command(team).
Step? 12. Preparation of a public opinion.
Stage - " Realization of the project "
Step? 13. Drawing up of offers under the project.
Step? 14. Search of business partners.
Step? 15. Realization of official negotiations.
Step? 16. Reception of necessary resources.
Step? 17. Realization of scheduled actions.
Step? 18. An estimation and the control of performance of the plan.
Step? 19. Updating of the plan of realization of the project.
Step? 20. Informing of the public on results of the project.
And now we shall proceed(pass) to the characteristic of each step, special attention paying on the first stage " Development of the social project ". A first step is studying a public opinion or opinion of inhabitants of that settlement, city in which you live.
Sociological research meaningly and optimum helps to solve social problems of separate region, as is the basic purpose of any social project.
Sociological research includes some stages:
1. Preparation of research. Drawing up of the program of the research including it(him) of the purpose, a problem(task), a hypothesis, and also the text of the questionnaire. If research will be carried out(spent) in any collective contacts to his(its) head are come into.
If scale research with scope of a plenty interrogated, for example several hundreds city dwellers the working group which will be engaged in it is formed is planned. At the same stage other organizational questions are solved.
2. Gathering the initial sociological information. Gathering of materials about that problem which is a subject of sociological research. The initial information can be submitted in the different form: answers to questions of the interview, the filled forms of questionnaires, records of the researcher in cards of supervision, аудио-and videorecordings etc. the File of this information depends on scale of spent research.
3. Processing a material. The received material is processed manually or on a computer according to the developed program of research. If manual processing of the received materials auxiliary tables (matrixes and other toolkit facilitating process of processing of materials) beforehand prepare is supposed. If for processing materials the computer will be used, the special program according to which are made out as initial documents (texts of questionnaires), and intermediate with which help the information is coded for input in the computer program or a database is necessary.
4. The analysis of the data and registration of conclusions. After processing the material, the received results are made out as documents, reports, tables etc. Then they are analyzed and are drawn the appropriate conclusions which can be made out as clause(article) in periodicals, report in the appropriate department, the scientific report. Conclusions should not be end in itself, the main thing - practical actions which follow from the carried out(spent) research. It also is the social project sold by youth club " New civilization ". All stages of sociological research are logically mutually conditioned and interconnected, therefore it is impossible to start the next stage if up to the end qualitatively it is not executed previous, that is the material received at earlier carried out(spent) stage, is a basis for realization of the subsequent.
1. Preparation of research
Starting(beginning) work, formulate a number(line) of social problems, actual for your region, and then choose above what will work, carrying out the social project.
Some practical advice(councils):
Work in library, see(overlook) newspapers, directories, analyse the maintenance(contents) of documentary films and telecasts etc. for drawing up of representation about what in general social problems are in your region.
Organize open discussion during which it is possible to listen to all interested persons to share the representation about modern social problems of a different level, starting(beginning) from global and all-Russian up to regional and local, that is inherent in your city, settlement, village. All statements and opinions of participants carefully are necessary for writing down, not missing any offer.
Then start selection of a social problem on a number(line) of criteria:
- Importance and an acuteness(a witticism) of a problem for region (city, settlement, village)?
- Whether the decision basically is possible?
- What really you can make?
- What is the time it is required for the decision of the given problem?
- What means (material and financial resources) are necessary for its(her) decision?
- You have what resources?
After selection of 2-3 most actual problems to which decision you can bring in the mite, it is necessary to start the formulation of different variants of the name of these problems. It is necessary to develop the formulation from which it is possible to leave to the public for discussion.
What is the questionnaire?
Now we shall stop on the important point - drawing up of the questionnaire or the questionnaire for interview which will help you to study opinion of city dwellers on the social problems chosen as object.
To lead(carry out) interrogation, the specific toolkit is necessary. To make the questionnaire not so it is simple, as it seems at first sight. Many consider, that has written one question, the second, the third... And the questionnaire is ready. Process of creation of the questionnaire can be compared to game on a musical instrument. Only the ordered certain scale of sounds will give a harmonous melody. At drawing up of the questionnaire it is necessary to observe rules and principles of its(her) designing and also to know features of different kinds of questions, to be able to formulate correctly them and rationally to have, to receive more full and exact characteristic of investigated object.
In existing dictionaries the questionnaire is meant as the ordered list of questions. But instructions(indications) as it is necessary to order them, are given not everywhere. Therefore we shall consider more in detail this question.
The questionnaire should consist of three parts:
1. The prologue.
2. The basic part.
The main function of the prologue - to wake desire of the respondent to reply to the questionnaire. The prologue begins with the reference(manipulation) to interrogated and contains:
1. The reference(manipulation) (dear schoolboy, the inhabitant, the citizen etc.).
2. The given organizations (establishment), conducting interrogation.
3. The purpose and research problems, and also practical value of the decision of these problems(tasks).
4. The importance of a role of the respondent for the decision of these problems(tasks).
5. A guarantee of anonymity (the main thing here not that will be or the surname of the respondent will not be fixed, and that received from questioned data do not become public property of others without appropriate it(him) on it of the consent).
6. The instruction(indication) on engineering of filling of the questionnaire (frequently these instructions(indications) still settle down and it is direct in the text of questions or on fields of the questionnaire).
7. The expression of gratitude stated in the advance payment interrogated, which induces it(him) to fill in the questionnaire.
The prologue should not be very big, but necessarily clear and clear for any respondent, motivating it(him) on participation in interrogation. Though this part small on volume, she(it) very important. How the reference(manipulation) is made, the attitude(relation) to the questionnaire of the respondent depends.
The basic part
It is the most important part of the questionnaire. The first usually go so-called " contact questions " which the basic purpose to interest the respondent, to facilitate to it(him) process of inclusion in a problem. These questions should be formulated simply that is assume easy answers. Due to statement in the beginning of the questionnaire of such more simple questions the respondent is prepared for the most important. Transition from simple to complex(difficult) questions carries the name " the Rule воронки ". His(its) use gradually helps interrogated to develop the skills necessary for filling of the questionnaire.
After contact questions the basic are put. These are the most important and difficult. Answers to them give the basic information on a problem interesting the researcher. The maintenance(contents) of questions should correspond(meet) to the purpose and research problems.
For each separate problem(task) it is better to develop the certain block of questions. Questions of one block can follow one by one, and can be located between questions of other blocks. The most complex(difficult) block of questions it is necessary to have in middle of a substantial part of the questionnaire.
On last place final questions, which basic function are put - to remove(take off) a psychological pressure(voltage) at respondents, to let know, that the big and necessary work is made. In connection with possible(probable) weariness of the respondent, it there should be most simple questions, answers on which do not demand a strong pressure(voltage) of memory, attention etc.
In паспортичку the questions revealing the following maintenance(contents) are included: a floor, age of the respondent, formation(education), a trade, social and the marital status. Depending on the purpose and problems(tasks) of spent research the quantity(amount) of questions can be reduced or increased. Is correct to make паспортичку not so simply. It is impossible to transfer its(her) structure from one questionnaire to another.
Паспортичка can settle down both in the beginning, and at the end of the questionnaire. Though on this question till now there are various opinions. One experts consider, that if she(it) will be located in the beginning of the questionnaire at the respondent the doubt that questioning anonymous, especially if in the questionnaire the question will be finding - out of inwardness or knowledge interrogated will appear. They consider what to begin the questionnaire with паспортички not only it is unethical, but also is inexpedient, as these questions can guard the respondent that will affect reliability of the information or even to push away from filling the questionnaire.
But, on the other hand, to begin conversation, not having presented, too it is not accepted. First the person speaks about itself some words (that is fills паспортичку), and then already passes to other serious questions. And how "to remove(take off") vigilance of the respondent? Simply having offered it(him) only at own discretion (having stipulated once again, that it is unessential) to fill in a line " the Surname, a name, a patronymic " or instead of it to put the certain code (a combination of various letters and figures) which will be known only by the respondent.
Any polite person at the end of dialogue which occured under his(its) initiative and has satisfied his(its) any personal interests, expresses gratitude. Therefore at the end of the questionnaire it is desirable to thank respondents for participation in interrogation. It can be statements of different type: " we Thank for participation in research ", " Thank for the help ", " we Thank you for that, despite of employment, you have found time and an opportunity to reply to our questionnaire " etc.
At the end of the questionnaire it is possible to raise the question about utility of the carried out(spent) interrogation. For example: " As far as important you count realization of the given interrogation? " And also to offer to participate in the subsequent interrogations.
Check of the questionnaire
After the questionnaire is made, she(it) is necessary for checking up. The questionnaire should answer the certain rules. We shall result some of them.
Check of formulations of questions
It is necessary to avoid the not clear formulations, special terms. If such is, it is necessary to explain or replace them.
The system of used categories should be clear to all respondents.
Questions should not contain installations. An example: " Than to you monotonous work, probably, is not pleasant to that does not force to think... ".
If the question is connected to an estimation of behaviour not approved in a society or activity, it is necessary to let know to the respondent, that the answer will not cause condemnation. For this purpose use approximately such beginning of a question: " One consider, that... Others consider, that... And how you consider? "
It is not necessary to suppose, that the design of a question declined interrogated to the answer. " You you see do not think?.. " - " Is not present, I do not think... ", " Unless you do not want?.. " - " Yes, I want... ".
If on one question it is a lot of variants of answers they need to be divided(shared) into thematic blocks and instead of one to set a little.
At the answer usually the attention of the respondent is fixed on first and last variant of the answer (with overweight to the first), and most of all positive answers it happens on the first. Therefore, if there is an opportunity have variants not consistently, and in the casual order.
To raise(increase) reliability of answers, it is necessary to provide to the respondent an opportunity to evade from them if at him(it) such necessity will appear. Use variant of the answer: " I am at a Loss to answer ".
To check up the closed questions (that is with the concrete list of answers). They are expedient for transforming in half-closed, having enabled the respondent to add the variant.
Questions should not touch vanity, advantage of the respondent, his(its) any prestigious representations. " Why you do not like work... (the concrete state either public body or the person) further is underlined? " Such type is better for not using questions. The respondent negatively can react to such question, and his(its) further opinion will be deformed. Ask it(him) to estimate work of the several organizations, for example, on a 5-mark scale. Certainly, the respondent should know about their activity.
It is necessary орфографически and стилистически is correct to issue questions. For this purpose ask to check up the made text of someone from grown-ups.
Check of a composition of the questionnaire
It is necessary to check not only separate questions, and all composition of the questionnaire and its(her) graphic registration. The basic requirements:
It is necessary to check, whether the engineering of answers to questions is enough clearly explained to the respondent.
Questions in the beginning of the questionnaire should be the most simple ("contact", in middle - the most complex(difficult) and substantial, and in the end - again simple.
For transition from one block of questions to another it is necessary to use transitive.
The basic and control questions it is better to not have one after another. If the respondent will understand, that to it(him) do not trust also it(him) check, it can be reflected in reliability of the subsequent information.
If there is a suspicion, what not all respondents can be competent in something enough or that they not everyone will concern to that group for which the question it is necessary to raise the question the filter is intended.
The question - filter should have the index of transition for different groups of respondents. For example: " the following question is answered only by pensioners ".
It is not necessary to ask, which exceed opportunities of memory of respondents. It can be events which for a long time have taken place or which though took place recently, but for the respondent did not play a basic role and consequently were forgotten. For example, a question " Write a surname of the deputy of your area " can stump many respondents not only younger age. At the same time this question given after elections, to a certain extent reveals activity of electorate.
It is impossible to suppose congestions of the same questions (a number(line) of the alternative, closed, open questions or questions of the tabulared form etc.). It results in exhaustion of the respondent, causing sensation of monotony. In this case it is necessary to use all variety of possible(probable) questions more widely.
In sociology there is a concept of competence of a public opinion. For example, it is not necessary to ask about the project of this or that law if it(he) is not published, or about those phenomena with which the respondent did not collide(face).
Check of graphic registration of the questionnaire
. The font of the text should not be "blind", that is трудночитаемым (differently many respondents first of all visually impaired, will not answer the questionnaire).
. The text of a question and possible(probable) variants of answers to him(it) is better for printing a different font, allocating the text of a question larger or fat font, and variants of answers - italics, that is an inclined font or it is simple fineer.
. Explanatories to semantic questions also are better for typing(collecting) a special font that the respondent could pay to them attention.
. For the answer to open and half-closed questions there should be enough pure(clean) lines. It is not necessary to save on it a paper, a place for the answer can not suffice the respondent.
. Questions in the tabulared form are recommended to be ruled, that at the answer to them respondents did not have mess. It will facilitate also processing of answers to these questions.
. Answers are influenced also with length of variants, therefore them it is necessary to counterbalance, put down a number(line) of points graphically.
. It is impossible to suppose carry of half of answers to a question on other page.
Attention! Finally to estimate quality of the made questionnaire, it is necessary to lead(carry out) trial (or flight) research. For this purpose it is enough to interrogate small group of people. Realization of trial research helps to specify clearness of formulations and the maintenance(contents) of questions, completeness of a set of variants of answers, and also a sequence of their arrangement.
Check allows not only to reveal and exclude superfluous questions which are well-known or not having the direct attitude(relation) to a researched problem but also to define(determine), what questions will be the most complex(difficult) for respondents and to try to make their more accessible. Remember, that qualitatively developed questionnaire - a necessary condition of successful realization of sociological research.
2. Gathering the initial sociological information
( realization of questioning)
Sociologists, проводя the researches, do(make) special sample. They define(determine), how many people from different demographic and social groups need to be interrogated to judge opinion of all population in the given territory. Proportions of persons man's and a female should correspond(meet) to their proportions among the population. And so on different parameters: age, a social status, formation(education), duration of residing in the given city etc.
It is very important question as if you interrogate very few people or people of one category, for example youth your conclusions will not reflect opinion of city dwellers. Hence, your project will not have a real social support.
And if you will interrogate very much many:
. Will spend huge quantity(amount) of time (and also papers and other materials) and will tighten(delay) sociological research for some months or even years;
. You will not have opportunity for the organization and realizations of the most social project for the sake of which studying opinions of city dwellers will be carried out(spent).
And now about the procedure of interrogation.
If you have opportunity to lead(carry out) written interrogation, растиражируйте the text of the questionnaire on the copier. Offer to fill to its(her) relatives, friends, neighbours, ask them to involve in interrogation familiar. It is desirable, that in the form with questions filled at you, differently people can postpone this business " in a long box " and the chance will receive the questionnaire back from you very small.
If you do not have means to multiply the questionnaire, lead(carry out) oral interrogation. For this purpose make a pattern or a breadboard model of the questionnaire and put on it(him) marks about answers received from respondents. Then count up their number. If you have decided to carry out(spend) interrogation in the street, do not do(make) it alone. Подойдя to the potential respondent, be presented, name the names, explain the purpose of spent interrogation. Ask the person (or group of people) to give you some minutes. Be close(attentive) to those who has agreed to spend time for answers.
Study to communicate with people politely and tactfully. Remember, that the anonymous form of interrogation raises sincerity of answers, therefore once again emphasize, that a surname and a name to specify unessentially. When will study opinion of associates do not prompt, do not set leading questions, do not make comments. You see to you important to find out their point of view.
Judgements of people can be very subjective. Probably, they have no the necessary information or have the interests. And it should be meant. If the person has questions under the text of the questionnaire, any concrete item(point) is not clear, quietly and patiently explain, that means this or that word or the offer. Remember, that at all people a different educational level and the general(common) preparation. Do not overlook to thank for work on the questionnaire (or for taken interview) everyone who has accepted in it participation.
If with you will be impolite or to the questionnaire (to talk during interview) will refuse to reply, do not experience - people different, him(it) can be there is no time. It is necessary to be ready and to this. Invite to take part in questioning (interview) next time.
3. Processing a material
The material received during questioning is necessary for processing that is to systematize the maintenance(contents) of answers according to the program of research. If manual processing of the information beforehand it is necessary to prepare for auxiliary tables and matrixes which use considerably accelerates will be carried out(spent) and facilitates process of processing of initial materials. For example, for data processing "паспортички" (sections "Floor" and " Age group ") it is possible to use the following table.
The data on a sexual accessory(belonging) and age of respondents
Till 12 13-17 18-25 26-35 36-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 > 81 Total
Other breakdown on age is possible(probable) also.
If in the questionnaire many open questions all over again it is necessary to write out the received answers in a column, and then them to systematize, having counted up quantity(amount) about identical answers under the maintenance(contents). Usually summarize answers on each item(point) of the questionnaire and calculate their interest from number interrogated. Interests pay off not less than from 100 person, the tenth interest - from 1000 and more.
If you at once want to connect substantial answers and the "biographic" data of respondents, process the received materials with the help of the table given below, having specified in its(her) columns answers of the interrogated citizens according to their floor and age.
? A question Variants of the answer the Husband. Wives. Till 12 years 13-17 18-25 26-35 36-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 > 81 Total
In that case when you want to study opinion of different categories of respondents, preparation for interrogation and processing of results is more complex(difficult), better to carry out her(it) on a computer. If for processing materials of questionnaires it is supposed to use a computer, preliminary it is necessary to make or get the special program which systematizes the data entered into a computer by the given criteria. In case of use of computer technology the appropriate form of the questionnaire in which the respondent will mark the answers is necessary. It facilitates coding the information and its(her) input in a computer database.
4. Registration of conclusions
We remind, that to you does not follow, having interrogated small group of people to generalize results, considering, that the opinion of all population is revealed. But nevertheless you have received representation that respondents think, and you can use the received data. For example, you send the letter to any instance and as argument mark, that 2/3 from three hundred the citizens interrogated by you count the following...
But we shall return to registration of conclusions. At this stage the processed and systematized data are represented as various documents, reports, tables etc. Such way of registration allows to analyse the generalized materials and to draw correct conclusions. Besides the sociological materials received after processing can be reflected in clauses(articles) in city newspapers, reports in the appropriate committee of local administration or other departments. The variant of the scientific report of your group etc is possible(probable).
Sending the data of interrogations in those or other instances, using them during negotiations, necessarily specify, how many the person it is interrogated and as answers (in percentage to number interrogated) were distributed(allocated). The estimations of inhabitants received with the help of questionnaires or interview are very important to supplement with the objective information. Remember, that the received conclusions should not become the purpose of sociological research, that is all done work is only started realizations of the concrete social project directed on change (improvement) of a social situation in your native city, region.
Research - not end in itself, it only the tool for realization of the social project directed on improvement of life of inhabitants of local community. Also always let's remember one of slogans of the American school of management: " the Problem is given to us not for complaints, and for the decision! "
For those who was interested with questions of preparation and realization of polls, we shall result the brief list of the literature which it is possible to recommend for more serious studying this question.
1. Гречихин V.G.lecture by a technique and engineering of sociological researches. - M.: Изд-in the Moscow State University, 1988.