The characteristic of the basic components of the program of sociological research
The characteristic of the basic components of the program of sociological research (a problem, object, a subject, the purposes and problems(tasks), hypotheses and researches).
The program of social research - a statement of Ñ«ÓÑÔ¿¬«-methodological preconditions (the general(common) concept) according to the basic purposes of undertaken work and hypotheses of researches with the instruction(indication) of rules of procedure, and also a logic sequence of operations for check of hypotheses.
The program of social researches usually includes rather detailed, precise and completed statement of the following questions: a methodological part - the formulation and a substantiation of a problem, the instruction(indication) of the purpose, definition of object and an object of research, the logic analysis of the basic concepts, the formulation of hypotheses and research problems; a methodical part - definition of surveyed set, the characteristic of used methods of gathering of the initial social information, logic structure of toolkit for gathering this information, logic circuits of its(her) processing on the COMPUTER.
Problem situation - some contradiction between comprehension of scientific - cognitive or practical need(requirement) and ignorance of ways of its(her) satisfaction. Соотстветственно, the basic purpose of research is defined(determined) as Ñ«ÓÑÔ¿¬«-applied (search of the typical decision of a problem with his(its) subsequent appendix to practice) or mainly applied, i.e. connected with practical regulation of the certain social processes.
The problem - differs according to the purpose of research. Gnosiological (логико-cognitive) and subject character. Gnosiological problems are the problems caused by lack of the information on a condition, tendencies of change important from the point of view of ideological and administrative functions of the social phenomena and processes. Here problems are caused by lack of knowledge. Subject problems - the contradiction caused by collision of interests of this or that group of the population, the social institutes inducing them to actions, destabilizing their ability to live.
On the carrier the problem can represent the contradiction touching interests separate social - demographic, national, professional, political etc. groups, social institutes, the industrial enterprises, official bodies etc.
On scales of distribution - national or regional character.
On time of action - short-term (for example, a dissatisfaction with the form of training), intermediate term (a problem of adaptation of workers to the new form of work), long-term (deviating behaviour of a part of the population)
On depth of the contradiction - one-scheduled (touching one party(side) of the social phenomenon or process, for example, elections of this or that deputy) system (reflecting дисбаланс all system, for example, growth of criminality) and caused by contradictions of functional character, i.e. infringement before the usual relationships of cause and effect of the social phenomenon (for example, ломка ideological representations of the population, reorganization).
Object - in a broad sense, the carrier of this or that social problem. The certain social reality, not dependent on the researcher.
Subject - properties, the parties(sides), attitudes(relations) and processes of the given reality (i.e. the given object), selected with the researcher for purposeful studying. The concentrated expression of interrelation of a problem and object of research. In the same object some objects of research can be allocated.
Hypotheses of research - a set of receptions, the methods used by the researcher, a general orientation of research are set up to his(its) beginning by the formulated hypotheses. The hypothesis is the scientific assumption which is put forward for an explanation of any factors, the phenomena and processes which should be confirmed or denied.
Promotion of hypotheses predetermines logic of all процеса researches. Social research is under construction on preliminary, is obvious or implicitly expressed assumptions of character and the reasons of occurrence of an investigated problem
The purposes - more often practical as are called to give first of all the information for development(manufacture) of recommendations, preparations and acceptance of the administrative decisions, capable to raise(increase) their efficiency.
Problems(tasks) - are formulated according to his(its) purpose and hypotheses and comprise search of the answer to a question: what ways and means of the decision of a researched problem.