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I.A.Butenko USE of NEW TECHNOLOGIES AT INTERROGATIONS

I.A.Butenko USE of NEW TECHNOLOGIES AT INTERROGATIONS



On this theme I already could write on pages "Социса", discussing methodical researches of foreign, mainly American sociologists [1]. Then the question was significant pluss and some minuses which use of a computer has in eyes of the sociologist, interviewers and respondents. In the last 4 - 5 years of XX century a question on that to carry out(spend) or to not carry out(spend) interrogations with the help of new technologies, any more does not cost(stand). Actual there are more private(individual), but in the methodical plan not less important questions connected to character of influence of new technologies on all process of research.

I shall stop on the aspects which have seemed to me especially essential for domestic sociologists, not disregarding and some moments in passing discussed by foreign colleagues describing that degree of carefulness from which similar work will be carried out(spent). All of them are connected, first, to increase of a level of participation of respondents in research, and, second, with finding - out of quality of this participation.

The attention of foreign sociologists, by numerous publications, concentrates around of use of the new opportunities given by telecommunication, a computer, and also the Internet.

Answering machines, determinants of number

It is known: the level of installation of telephones grows, in some countries of family have more than one number. It allows researchers to resort to telephone interrogations even more often. Among advantages of telephone interrogation before personal interview (smaller cost, the big efficiency, confidentiality and, hence, sincerity of the answers, providing finally the big standardization of process of data gathering) - and big стандартность in a way of delivery of the data if the interviewer works on a computer [2].

But simultaneously with growth of installation of telephones growth of number of the persons using determinants of number and answering machines is marked also, and this circumstance is represented by a significant obstacle for contact to respondents. In USA, for example, with 1992 on 1998 the share of the families using answering machines, has increased with 39 up to 65 % that has drawn to them special attention on the part of methodologists. So, at annual conference of the American association of researchers of a public opinion in 1998 on the given theme worked 6 секций where it was made not less than 17 reports devoted to a question on, whether contains distribution of these means new difficulties for data gathering. Results of discussion appeared ambiguous. But before we shall note, that use of any of opportunities or both at once - receptions of the sound message and definition of number - in Northern America, yes gradually and in Europe too - does not demand from the user of the special equipment. It is possible to resort to these services if simply to bring an additional user's payment for the phone.

P.S.Takelja's special research and Х.В. 0'Нила [3] shows, that АОН persons of the able-bodied age dissolved, living with children, working a full working day use more often. Among them there are more than owners of answering machines, than among those who does not resort to definition of number. Comparison of users АОН with users of answering machines has shown, that the first less willingly participate in interrogation, than those who uses both that, and another.

Even more detailed research have lead(carried out) M.V.Link and R.V.Oldendik [4], studying sense of use of the given services among inhabitants of staff(state) Northern Carolina. Researchers, having made sample of adult population on a residence, have organized bells, asking about the consent of subscribers to participation in interrogation. That who refused the interviewer, heads of interrogation called; two refusals it appeared enough that more this person to not disturb. From the others found out, whether they use an answering machine and АОН, and if yes, as frequently. In total it was interrogated 2458 respondents. Research has shown, that the answering machine is used "always" or "frequently" in 18,7 % of cases, АОН - in 9,9 %, both means - in 8,6 %, "sometimes" this or that - in 37,2 %. Only АОН use the youngest, inhabitants of rural settlements. Only answering machines - persons 30 - 64 years more educated, inhabitants of cities. Frequently both means - persons 18 - 44 years, usually it is inhabitants of suburbs. Sometimes one, sometimes another - the most educated respondents.

It was found out also, whether these means for cutting off of undesirable bells are used. It is thought, quite fairly authors believe, that already @ fact of holding interrogation speaks about нераспространенности similar practice. By answers of respondents to a question, whether they cut undesirable bells "always", "frequently" or "sometimes", are inclined to do(make) it the youngest more often.

The received data, believe authors, allow researchers to keep the certain optimism in the respect that bells of interviewers to the respondents using these services, are not doomed for a notorious inattention. Probably, it is possible to agree with a conclusion that the problem not answered in itself does not become aggravated presence and distribution of these services. This problem in the greater degree appears caused by influence of more significant social factors, among which accelerated rhythm of life, especially lifes of youth. And it just does not add special optimism concerning increase of a level of participation in researches.

Here it would be desirable to add, as in Russia sociological services, certainly, face with similar problems. The researches carried out(spent) by the western colleagues, it is thought, will allow to formulate the message left on an answering machine, accordingly instructing interviewers more carefully. Such message should generate at potential respondents the positive attitude(relation) to interrogation and, probably, even will cause a reciprocal bell in service. But above similar nuances we just should work and to work not less laboriously, than to foreign colleagues.

Self-filling on a computer

Till now the majority of researches in USA, Germany, France will be carried out(spent) by means of personal interviews. For different and weighty enough reasons (people do not like or can not read and - or write, avoid long answers, suppose more mistakes, do(make) many misses, give answers beside the point etc.) sociologists aspire to avoid questioning, that is self-filling. The respondent, and then and the interviewer (and then also the operator entering the data) appear the weakest parts in a long circuit of scientifically proved research actions.

But the reference(manipulation) to a computer removes many difficulties from among designated. And for such reference(manipulation) at gathering the information there are more and more bases besides named.

For past a little bit(some) years the situation and in our country, and in the world has considerably changed. The increasing number of persons seize the computer letter and have computers: (in USA at the end of 1990th of them each second family, in Russia - less than 5 % of families had, but access to computers is provided to the much greater number of persons and besides extends promptly. Among scientists - грантополучателей МОНФ (the Moscow public scientific fund) - sociologists, historians, economists and political scientists till 40 years - in 1998 them 96 % had.

Means, researchers have more and more opportunities more often to address to a computer at data gathering as thus processing is considerably facilitated their (data). Sociologists, psychologists, physicians, the lawyers, many other experts rather widely resort to his(its) such use. In the methodical plan here character of reaction of respondents on the fact of use of a computer first of all continues to be specified at realization of research, and in this connection on character. Scale and the reasons of distinctions in the data received at self-filling on a paper, on a computer and in answers to the interviewer.

Comparison of results of computer self-filling from interviews and questioning in the whole series of the researches which have been carried out(spent) by various authors for 1967 - 1997, has allowed V.L.Rihmanu and to his(its) colleagues [5] to draw a conclusion that the way of data presentation influences a degree of a categoriality of answers: at computer self-filling respondents inform the general(common) sensation of anxiety more often, choose extreme positions of a scale than when write or say answers. This feature of behaviour of respondents, however, is shown to a lesser degree if they work above the computer version of the questionnaire in loneliness, are sure in anonymity and can come back back under the text, doing(making) corrections.

L.Petere and his(its) colleagues [6] carried out(spent) in clinic diagnostic interviews and at participation of the interviewer, and with application similar to the questionnaire of the computer version showed to them. Distinctions in perception(recognition) of these ways of realization of interrogation were considered(examined) on an example of reactions of disturbing and depressive patients - the persons, capable is the sharpest to react on offered раздражители. Appeared, that both versions in their eyes are equally acceptable by way of convenience and simplicity of filling. However computer self-filling was appreciated above as in this case respondents hesitated less to give frank answers. On the other hand, answers have seemed to a computer employment(occupation) by longer in comparison with usual interview.

From here it is visible, that in itself the computer any more does not frighten and does not irritate respondents, that essentially simplifies procedure and receptions, and data input. One more advantage of use of self-filling with the help of a computer appear opportunities of discussion of delicate questions opening here. It speaks that absence of the person specifying questions, creates sensation of the greater security of answers from an extraneous eye and, hence, raises desire of respondents to inform itself data of delicate character.

It has proved to be true, for example, in the research which has been carried out С.Ф.Л. Тернером and his(its) colleagues [7]: respondents - men informed the homosexual contacts to a computer more often, than did(made) it on a paper. R.Turanzho and T.V.Smith [8] was revealed with similar distinctions and in behaviour of women. At the interrogation spent with the help of a computer, the woman as a whole informed that sexual partners had some, than at filling the questionnaire on a paper more often. By the way, their answers differed and depending on revenge of realization of interview: the interrogated houses, women admitted it to a computer, and outside of a house - answering on a paper more often.

Extremely interesting data result D.L.Rajt, B.C. Аквилино and A.D.Sappl [9]. In their research pupils of the auxiliary educational centre for the persons who are excluded from school or not engaged in it(her) owing to pregnancy, presence of the child, other reasons (only 1072 persons 12 - 18 years), filled in the standard questionnaire on as far as frequently they accepted alcoholic drinks, drugs, made antisocial conducts, appeared a victim of violence etc. Did(made) it a part of respondents on a paper, and a part - with the help of the portable computer brought by researchers. All pupils have received identical assurances of anonymity: the first should put(fold) upon termination of filling the questionnaire in an envelope, the second - to keep the answers to a diskette and to give its(her) organizer of research. Appeared, that on a computer the number of the marked negative acts or conditions is on the average higher (1,90 against 1,78 on a paper). The most appreciable and the difference in a level of recognitions in the use of marihuana, drawing of damage of the property, in runaways from a house and violence was essential on the part of parents.

After filling questionnaires all interrogated asked to inform and as far as they rely on anonymity and as far as were fair in the answers. The analysis of results has shown, that as a whole with reference to teenagers the computer version has confirmed the advantages before paper at discussion of delicate questions. But, as researchers very pertinently notice, the computer is much more habitual to teenagers and youth, than representatives of other generations. They not only are not afraid of it(him), but also in some cases practically do not distinguish it(him) from paper carriers. I believe, self-filling on a paper is quite possible to agree with conclusions that the reference(manipulation) to a computer for data gathering on delicate themes in this group can only ненамного be more effective, than.

In other publication on results of this research [10] answers of teenagers, filling the questionnaire on the psychological state of health were analyzed. Influences actually a way of data gathering it is not revealed: reports on feeling of persons of a different floor, age, an ethnic accessory(belonging), a level of the income have shown, that all in an equal measure electronic carriers were habitual both paper, and. But those who worked with a computer, informed the excitability and irritability more often. They counted computer interview anonymous more often.

In general in discussed publications the question on a degree доверительности dialogue rises constantly, whether there is a speech about the fact of the consent to participate in research, whether answers to delicate questions or in general any answers are analyzed. It(he) was studied, in particular, in connection with perception(recognition) respondents of conditions of work on a computer for interrogation. In one of schools influence of distance between computers [11] was measured. Appeared, that the further in a class room there were computers from each other, the more average sizes of answers to the delicate questions received from pupils, working on a computer, differed from average sizes of the answers received from other respondents on a paper. And those answers which were given on the computers facing on distance less of one and a half meters from each other, were practically identical to paper versions. Authors quite, in my opinion, is proved explain it to that when computers cost(stand) too closely to each other, the respondent believes, that the neighbour has opportunity to read his(its) answers. That is, the more the distance between computers, the more respondent is trusted in confidentiality.

The "Clever" questionnaire

The questionnaire on a computer - not simply screen version of the paper text. Made rather insignificant efforts, we receive "cleverer" version. She(it) automatically allows to plant answers to the questions based on the previous answer of the respondent and by that to reduce their interference. She(it) limits an opportunity of fixing to the respondent of the illogical answer, i.e. contradicting to the answer to the previous question as gives to choose only the certain, logical variants from all offered. Without deterioration of a general impression from answers she(it) allows to come back back and to do(make) corrections if it was required to the respondent. It is possible to provide lexicon of open answers, etc. Differently, we can individualize on a course of interview by software the questionnaire, proceeding from some answers of each given respondent.

Thus significant efforts which are spent for training and instructing of interviewers, it is possible to not apply, having shifted on a computer many human functions and reducing chances of mistakes of interviewers, and also описки, typing errors, discrepancies. Illegibility of handwriting Is etc. removed also some questions, connected with answers beside the point, with mistakes of data input, the coding etc. These advantages are quite successfully used by fans(amateurs) (professionals in other areas), offering to fill in those or other questionnaires to visitors of many pages in the Internet.

Voice communication(connection)

The new technologies allowing the person in a mode of real time to carry on dialogue with a computer, are widely used in daily life (for example, in reference service when with the help тонового a set of figures of the phone it is possible to choose variants of the answer and gradually to approach(suit) to the formulation of inquiry to the automatic device). Hence, scientists can lean(base) on this experience, addressing to similar means for gathering the information.

Development of technologies goes further away. If still recently we were switched from the text to a picture now many experts predict switching on dialogue with the help of a voice [12]. Already there are opportunities by ear to write down the text.

In such a way - the automatic device dialed the number and started to conduct conversation, coding words - answers of the respondent - were проинтервьюированы by the phone 667 person 18 - 58 years from 1000 casually selected inhabitants of northern part of Helsinki. It was made for maintenance of the maximal confidentiality in especially practical purposes of preventive maintenance of diseases. In research which inform E.Ketola and M.Klokars [13], on the basis of self-reports with application of voice communication(connection) measured such attributes of risk of cardiovascular diseases as smoking, a level of a blood pressure, cholesterol, weight of a body, consumption of alcohol etc. On the basis of the similar information the automatic device made a decision on, whether the given respondent concerns to group of risk. That appeared 23 % of the interrogated women and 28 % of men to which at once upon termination of interview were offered (computer) to address in the centre of preventive maintenance.

Highly estimating such efficiency of the work, the mentioned authors believe, that at the similar form of dialogue people underestimated the data on some negative factors. Probably, I shall add, it occurs because also we not are always inclined to admit to ourselves insufficient attention to own health, in undesirable acts and ideas...

The question on confidentiality lifts I.Mun [14]. It(he) has assumed, that people preferring "lonely" technologies and addressing to them as respondents, concerning confidentiality and anonymity of their answers, than those who works on a paper less worry. Investigated in two groups where all respondents have equally assured of confidentiality, it(he) has received sufficient, though and not full, acknowledgement(confirmation) of this hypothesis.

E-mail

This kind of communication(connection) is known in the academic environment if to speak about humanists, already more than 15 years. Much testifies to his(its) distribution to our country. Is present addresses more and more, they even more often contain instructions(indications) on proper name people, instead of the name of the organizations. Practically each scientist - humanist actively working today has any address. At least, to it(him) or it(her) is what to name in the application for the grant in scientific fund.

E-mail - almost always a first step in the Internet. On pages of the sociological editions considering(examining) methods of data gathering, speech about the Internet goes even more often. More and more people resort to his(its) services in the different countries. Experts predict, that in 2005 the number of Internet users will reach(achieve) 1 billion.

In our country already, it agrees to data КОМКОН-2, 5 million Russians and number of them have access to the Internet from above is increased promptly. Conducting sociological institutes and services have the pages in the Internet, the Russian sociological network [15] is created, the question about popular for experts archive of the data is discussed, magazines have electronic addresses and start to publish electronic addresses of the authors. Thus, rates "интернетизации" allow to count, that about what further there will be a speech - not exotic, and a daily reality which compatriots join all more actively.

Those who works in the Internet, for certain more than once met the offer to fill in any questionnaires at visiting many sites. Therefore interrogations on the Internet for many not a novelty though questionnaires there at all are not sociological. It is no wonder, that sociologists discuss opportunities of this channel with reference to more mass researches [16]. In this connection first of all researchers address to the opportunities given by e-mail. They involve with the cheapness and efficiency though also traditional post interrogations at reliably working mail do not cause special censures and are used rather widely both in USA, and in Germany, and in the Great Britain. As is known, the sharpest in all post interrogations is the problem of return. The data on results of the interrogations which have been carried out(spent) among members of various associations, and also among heads and workers of official bodies, other professionals different researchers in 1986 - 1997. With use usual and e-mail show, that return was various, but from year to year e-mail always appeared in this respect less reliable. Д. Slate and D.Dillman [17], discussing this fact, explain his(its) that in the given researches. Probably, the special problem(task) not put to draw attention to the electronic message. For check of this offer - to 904 workers of the Washington university broken on 4 groups, the notice, the questionnaire, in 7 days a reminder and in 21 day one more copy of the questionnaire were dispatched to respondents. Groups differed depending on on what carrier they received these texts - from only paper up to completely electronic. The interested person from among those who has received her(it), the electronic version of the questionnaire also was offered to be unpacked(printed out) to send the filled text by usual mail.

The account of return was conducted on groups and has made 57,5 % in group " all on a paper " and 58 % - in group " all electronic ". The same who has received the notice by usual mail, responded less often (25 %), i.e. this form of the notice has worked worse, than electronic. In the American or German families, and to Russians now too, the significant number of different letters and other messages on a paper, first of all advertising character daily acts. Therefore it is quite possible to accept an explanation of these authors: respondents either throw out such notice not reading, or do not connect this paper message to actually electronic questionnaire. The reminder sent by usual mail, has allowed to raise(increase) return on 5 % among those who did not use e-mail and on 7 % - among those who checks her(it) not each working day.

Distinctions between electronic and paper versions it was expressed not only in cost of works, but also in efficiency of return and completeness of answers: on the average filled electronic versions were received in 9,16 days, and paper 14,4 days have demanded; 18 % of electronic questionnaires have returned to day of a parcel(sending), half - before the first filled paper questionnaire. The difference in completeness of answers to open questions is observed: them in the electronic version it was received on 12 percents of items(points) more, than in paper. There are distinctions and in развернутости these freely formulated answers (40 words on the average in the electronic version of the answer against 10 words in paper).

And one more valuable supervision of these authors. As appeared, at participation in the given interrogation respondents were more inclined to use e-mail, instead of directly the Internet that is caused by features of different programs of sending - reception of mail. If one owners of electronic addresses at once can send the filled questionnaires, having switched from e-mail for work in the Internet another the program in which they work, it to make do not allow, demanding preliminary switching on other browser, a manual set of the address and copying of the text of the filled questionnaire in the sent message. All named manipulations complicate process of dialogue of the respondent with the sociologist and consequently D.Shefer and L.Dillman judge, is thought, quite proved, that e-mail appears while only the intermediate stage between interrogations on a paper and on the Internet.

It is rather probable, that is fast and in Russia more attention will be given as directly to use of new technologies at data gathering, and to methodical aspects of this work. It would be desirable to hope, that such works will be carried out(spent) not only within the framework of not numerous and a little to whom of known dissertational researches, but appear, at last, a high-grade and constant component of development of domestic sociology.

the LIST of
the LITERATURE 1. Бутенко I.A.standardiz of interview and new technologies // Социол. исслед. 1997. № 11.

2. Gribble J.H., Miller H.G., Rogers S.M., Turner Cli. F. Interview mode and measurement of sexual behaviors: Methodological issuer // Journal of Sex Research. 1999. Feb. Vol. 36 ( 1 ) : 16 - 24.

3. Tuckel P.S. O'Neil H.W. " Screening out " // Marketing Research. 1996. № 8.

4. Link M.W., Oldendick R.W. Call screening: Is it really a problem for survey research // Public Opinion Quarterly. 1999. № 4. Vol. 63.

5. Richman W.L., Kiesler S., Weisband S., Drasgow F. A meta-analytic study of social desirability distortion in computer-administered questionnaires, traditional questionnaires, and interviews // Journal of Applied Psychology. 1999. Vol. 84. № 5.

6. Peters L., Clark D., Carroll F. Are computerized interviews equivalent to human interviewers? CIDl-Auto versus CIDI in anxiety and depressive disorders // Psychological Medicine. 1998, Jul. Vol. 28. № 4.

7. Turner C.F.L., Ku F.L., Pleck J.H. Impact of ACAS1 on reporting Male-Male sexual contacts: Preliminary relsults from the 1995 National Survey of adolescent males // Health Survey research methods. Hyattsville: MD, 1996.

8. Tourangeau R., Smithr T.W. Saking Sensitive Questions: the Impacts of data collection mode, question format, and question context // Pulic Opinion Quarterly. 1996. Vol. 60. № 2.

9. Wright D.L., Aquilino W.C., Supple A.J. A Comparison of Computer-assisted and paper-and-pen assisted questionnaires in a survey on smoking, alkohol, and drugs abuse // Public Opinion Quarterly. 1998. № 3. Vol. 62.

10. Supple AJ., Aquilino W.S., Wright D.L. Collecting sensitive self-report data with laptop computers: Impact on the response tendencies of adolescents in a home interview // Journal of Research on Adolescence. 1999. Vol. 9. № 4.

11. Beebe T.J., Harrison P.A., Andersen R.E., Fulkerson J.A. An Evaluation of computer-assisted self-interviews in a school setting // Public Opinion Quarterly. 1998. Vol. 62. № 4.

12. Gross N.P., Judge O.P., Wildstrom S. Let us Talk: Search technology is the next big thing in Computer. Will it put a PC in Every Home? // Business week. 1998, February. 23.

13. Ketola E., Klockars M. Computer-assisted telephone interview (CAT1) in primary care // Family Practice. 1999, Apr. Vol. 16. № 12.

14. Moon Y. Impression Management in computer-based interviews. The effects of imput modality, output modality, and distance // Public Opinion Quarterly. 1998. Vol. 62. № 4.

15. See: Бутенко И.А. About creation of the Russian sociological network // Социол. исслед. 2000. № 6.

16. See: Филиппова T.V.sociolog in the Internet // Социол. исслед. 2000. № 5. 17. Schaefer Å., Dillman D. Development of a standard e-mail methodology // Public Opinion Quarterly. 1998. Vol. 60. № 4.

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